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Prof. Bretan ANTHR 210 Spring 2020: How to Cite

When to Cite

in text (parenthatical) citation

The in-text (also known as the parenthetical) citation is a method to communicate to your reader what source you are using in the text of your assignment.   The in-text citation should provide enough information to point the reader to corresponding reference in your work cited page

In-text citation in APA format

APA style requires the author, year and page for in-text citations:

(Author, date, page)

example:    (Smith, 2000, p. 20)

If the information you are citing is from more than one page you would use pp. instead of p. to indicate more than one page is being cited

Example: (Smith, 2000, pp. 23-24)

If you are citing a work that doesn't have pagination (such as a website) indicate which paragraph the information appears in by using para. for an abbreviation of the word paragraph.

            Example: (Thomas, 2015, para. 3)

If you are citing a work that has two authors you must list both last names

Example: (Jameson & Harris, 2003, p. 42)

If you are citing a work that has between three and five authors you must list all of the authors’ names the first time you cite the work.  Each subsequent time the work you need to provide the first author listed followed by an et al.

Example: 1st time citing a source with four authors 

(Parker, Sterling, Hodges & Taylor, 2015, p. 87)

Each additional citation would be (Parker et al., 2015, p. 87)

If you are citing a work that has six or more authors cite the last name of the first author followed by an et al.

Example: (Daly et al., 2010, p. 78)

If you are citing a work that is authored by a group (a government agency, corporation, non-profit association, think tank) you must type out the group name as it appears in the text

Example: (The Annenberg Foundation, 2014, par. 3)

If you are citing a work that doesn’t have a date of publication use n.d. (no date) in place of a date. 

Example: (National Health Institute, n.d., par. 4)

If you are citing a work that doesn't have an author you'll need to state part of the title in your in-text citation.  Make sure that the title is put in double quotes (" ").

Example: Below is the full citation for a webpage without a listed author.

State-by-State Effects of a Ruling for the Challengers in King v. Burwell. (2015). Retrieved June 1,

2015, from 

The citation starts with State-by-State Effects of a Ruling for the Challengers in King v. Burwell

So the in-text citation would be ("State-by-State Effects", 2015, par. 2)

If you are citing a particular quote from a video or audio recording provide the time stamp of when the quote occurs:


             Example: (Ferris, 2008, 3:15)

The relationship between intext citation and work cited page


work cited page

The works cited page is an alphabetical list of all the sources cited in your paper.  Your sources are represented in the works cited page via a full citation.   The full citation includes information to identify the source.  The types of information recorded in a full citation can include the author name(s), the title of the work, date of publication, title of periodical, title of website, name of the database and the type of medium (web, print, video, cd).   

If you need more help with creating full citations for your sources please consult our citation resources page.