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Early Childhood Education - Prof. Dreyfus: Special Characteristics of MLA 8

9 Core Elements

9 Common Core Elements

Rather than give strict format rules for different types of sources, the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook identifies 9 "core elements" common to most sources and provides flexible guidelines on how to reference them in your Works Cited list.

(Commas separate details of the "container" or master work until all details are exhausted.)

BASIC MODEL OF A CITATION (to be set in Times New Roman, 12 Pt font, double spaced, with a "hanging indent")

NOTE: A "Container" is a larger work that can take the form of a book/e-books, performance, journal, magazine or newspaper, as well a website, search engine or database. Cite the container if you used the whole work.

 

Nested Containers

First Container -- Title of larger or self-contained work

E.g.: Book, Journal, Newspaper, Magazine, Website

 

Second Container* -- Name of service or platform that serves up the work. *Use if applicable

E.g.: Database, Streaming Service, Social Media Platform, Website (sometimes); Book Collection or Series 
 

Other Changes to MLA from 7 to 8

Other changes include:

  • No cities of publication for books.
  • No medium (print, web, etc.).
  • The use of abbreviations such as vol. for volume, no. for number, and p. or pp. for page number(s).
  • In most cases no date of access for electronic resources.
  • Permanent URLs.