Skip to main content

Research Methods - English 101 - Writing and Research



1. ABSTRACT (Why? How? What?)

2. INTRODUCTION (Hypothesis, Survey of the Literature - Broad to specific

3. METHODS (How to replicate the study. Detailed explanation of data sources or original collection (primary/secondary), as well as methodolog/ies applied.)

4. RESULTS (Tables and Figures. May include discussion of validation instrument and whether the findings were significant.) ‚Äč

5. DISCUSSION (Including questions for further research.)


A- D- I- R- M ORDER 

1. Abstract (Why? How? What?)

2. Discussion (Answers the hypothesis or research question and explains how results support the conclusion.)

3. Introduction

4. Results 

5. Methods 





  • Provides a brief and succinct synopsis of the paper. Includes the research question, the methodology used to investigate it, and a statement on the findings. 


  • Presents the topic and specific research question from broad to narrow
  • Presents the purpose of the paper and justification for the research about to be presented

Review of the Literature

What is a Literature Review?

  • A compilation & discussion of the significant literature of the paper's topic.
  • Part of an ongoing conversation. The work of the paper will react to or build on that conversation.

What is the structure of a Literature Review?

  • A summary of prevalent ideas by the last names of the authors who came before, grouped by theme
  •  Explain the leading findings or theories grouped by theme ir idea
  • Conclusion about these works

What is its purpose?

A literature review will help you identify what has been discovered and what has yet to be discovered. It helps the reader understand where your ideas "fit" in the scholarly conversation. A review is a required part of grant and research proposals and often a chapter in theses and dissertations.

Cues to a Literature Review Section

A growing body of literature suggests . . . (List authors and page numbers)

It is often argued that . . . (Author page number)

A contrary view holds . . . (Author page number)


  • Describes the design and methodology (Quanti/Quali) (Primary/Secondary) used to complete to the study in enough detail to be replicated
  • Often, limitations to the methods are indicated


  • Presents results that are related to the research
  • If secondary data is used, the full history of collection of that data is presented
  • Data should be presented in Tables. Visual Representations of data that help the reader's understanding should be presented in Figures. 

Discussion/Conclusion/Questions for Further Research

  • Results are put in context of the field, as well as other fields or global context.
  • The hypothesis should be answered and validated by the interpretation of the results. 
  • This section should also discuss how the results relate to previous research mentioned in the literature review, any cautions about the findings, and potential for future research.