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Research Methods - English 101 - Writing and Research

Highlights

BASIC STRUCTURE

1. ABSTRACT (Why? How? What?)

2. INTRODUCTION (Hypothesis, Survey of the Literature - Broad to specific

3. METHODS (How to replicate the study. Detailed explanation of data sources or original collection (primary/secondary), as well as methodolog/ies applied.)

4. RESULTS (Tables and Figures. May include discussion of validation instrument and whether the findings were significant.) ‚Äč

5. DISCUSSION (Including questions for further research.)

 

A- D- I- R- M ORDER 

1. Abstract (Why? How? What?)

2. Discussion (Answers the hypothesis or research question and explains how results support the conclusion.)

3. Introduction

4. Results 

5. Methods 


MAIN POINTS FREQUENTLY SUGGESTED BY:  

TITLE; ABSTRACT; KEYWORDS; TABLES & FIGURES; END OF THE INTRODUCTION 

 

Abstract

  • Provides a brief and succinct synopsis of the paper. Includes the research question, the methodology used to investigate it, and a statement on the findings. 

Introduction

  • Presents the topic and specific research question from broad to narrow
  • Presents the purpose of the paper and justification for the research about to be presented

Review of the Literature

What is a Literature Review?

  • A compilation & discussion of the significant literature of the paper's topic.
     
  • Part of an ongoing conversation. The work of the paper will react to or build on that conversation.


What is the structure of a Literature Review?

  • A summary of prevalent ideas by the last names of the authors who came before, grouped by theme
     
  •  Explain the leading findings or theories grouped by theme ir idea
     
  • Conclusion about these works

What is its purpose?

A literature review will help you identify what has been discovered and what has yet to be discovered. It helps the reader understand where your ideas "fit" in the scholarly conversation. A review is a required part of grant and research proposals and often a chapter in theses and dissertations.

Cues to a Literature Review Section

A growing body of literature suggests . . . (List authors and page numbers)

It is often argued that . . . (Author page number)

A contrary view holds . . . (Author page number)

Methods

  • Describes the design and methodology (Quanti/Quali) (Primary/Secondary) used to complete to the study in enough detail to be replicated
     
  • Often, limitations to the methods are indicated

Results

  • Presents results that are related to the research
  • If secondary data is used, the full history of collection of that data is presented
  • Data should be presented in Tables. Visual Representations of data that help the reader's understanding should be presented in Figures. 

Discussion/Conclusion/Questions for Further Research

  • Results are put in context of the field, as well as other fields or global context.
  • The hypothesis should be answered and validated by the interpretation of the results. 
  • This section should also discuss how the results relate to previous research mentioned in the literature review, any cautions about the findings, and potential for future research.