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Prof. Vecchio - 19th Century U.S. History: In-Text Citations

The Path of a Citation

 

The purpose of the in-text citation is to direct the reader to the full citation in the Works Cited page. 

Creating a path from:

                                The original source to

                                Your text using in-text citations to

                                Your Works Cited page

Example:

“The associations between mild food insecurity and illness did not differ significantly by child age" (Schmeer 12).

                                                         Works Cited‚Äč

Schmeer, Kammi K. “Household Food Insecurity and Child Health.” Maternal & Child

     Nutrition, vol. 13, no. 2, April 2017, pp. 1-13. Academic Search Complete, http://lib-

     proxy.sunywcc.edu:2061/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=122198106&site=ehost-

     live.

(When you cite an article from a WCC database you are not required to include the "Date Accessed."

Quick Guide to Formatting In-Text Citations (WCC Library)

Quoting vs. Paraphrasing

Original text

“The associations between mild food insecurity and illness did not differ significantly by child age" (Schmeer 12).

Paraphrasingputting the author’s ideas into your own words.

A child’s age was not a factor in the association of illness caused by mild food shortages (Schmeer 12).

Use a signal word to add emphasis:

Schmeer asserts that a child’s age was not a factor in the association of illness caused by mild food shortages (12).

Signal Words

Signal phrases are short phrases that introduce a quote, paraphrase, or summary, and signal to readers that an outside source is being used. Common signal words show emphasis, addition, comparison or contrast, illustration, and cause and effect.

Some examples:

        According to literary critic Harold Bloom...

        A survey conducted by the Pew Research Center in 2019 indicates that...

        Smith and Johnson state that...

        Legal scholar Terrence Roberts offered a persuasive argument: “….”

Below is a list of verbs that can be used in signal phrases:

acknowledges  

contends

insists

adds   

declares    

notes

admits  

denies  

observes

agrees      

describes    

points out

argues   

disputes  

refutes

asserts 

emphasizes 

rejects

believes

endorses   

reports

claims 

grants    

responds

compares 

illustrates 

suggests

confirms

implies

writes

Adapted from A Pocket Style Manual by Diana Hacker.

Hacker, Diana, and Nancy Sommers. A Pocket Style Manual. 7th ed., Bedford St. Martin's, 2014.