Qualitative studies attempt to reveal deep meaning in social phenomena.
They are documentary in nature and marked by a social interaction with the subject.
Case Studies (Can be "longitudinal")
Phenomenological (observing "lived experiences" and sensations, study of judgment, perception & emotion of a group of people)
Ethnography (description of the culture of a group of people)
|Materials||Field notes, recordings, audio/video
Uses Inductive Reasoning
Open-ended; Seeks exploration
Sometimes lacks a clear hypothesis
Flexible, can change mid-stream depending on findings
Quantitative research methods focus on gathering numerical data to explain a particular phenomenon or existing hypothesis.
Controlled Animal or Biological Experiments and Tests (Control the environment and introduce something "new" - i.e. animal, biological, and laboratory studies. Animals and cells no substitute for humans!)
Polls, Surveys, Questionnaires (Less controlled - people errors; ex. "Yale Study of New Haven Low Income Areas")
Cohort Studies (Collect data on wide selection of variables; time-consuming and expensive - e.g. "Harvard Nurses Study")
Randomized Trials - (Example, "The GEICO study". Again introduce a new variable; considered more controlled and accurate)
Sometimes studies uses Existing Raw Data and Manipulate it using Statistical Instruments (Example, https://www.healthdata.gov/ - clinical data from the DHHS)
|Materials||Computer modeling software; spreadsheets; data sets; tables of raw data and figures to represent effects
Uses Deductive Reasoning
Structured with a set of variables
Seeks to prove a supposed hypothesis
Larger, random selection of participants
Uses mathematical formulas to validate findings
To prevent bias, can be "randomized" and "Double blind" (researcher and participants don't know about each other or where variable has been introduced)
Findings can be generalized to greater populations and manipulated for other studies or purposes